UNCG Police Department

Threat Assessment Menu
Indicators of Potential Concern
Safety & Concerns Committee
If you need immediate assistance, call the UNCG Police Dept. at 334-4444.
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Special thanks to Gene Deisinger of Virginia Tech for most of the information and expertise contained in this web site. Used with his permission, December 2011.


National and Professional Association Reports on Campus Safety:

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State and Institutional Reports on College and University Safety and Security:







New Jersey

New Mexico

North Carolina




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Books/ Articles:

  • Association of Threat Assessment Professionals (2006). Risk assessment guideline elements for violence: Considerations for assessing the risk of future violent behavior. Los Angeles: Authors.
  • Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, & Berglund (1999). Threat assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence. Behavioral Sciences & the Law17, 323-337.
  • Braverman, M. (1999). Preventing workplace violence: A guide for employers and practitioners. London: Sage.
  • Calhoun, F. & Weston, S. (2003). Contemporary threat management: A practical guide for identifying, assessing, and managing individuals of violent intent. San Diego, CA. Specialized Training Services.
  • Calhoun, F. & Weston, S. (June 2006). Protecting judicial officials: Implementing an effective threat management process. Bureau of Justice Assistance Bulletin, 1-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance.
  • Corcoran, M.H. & Cawood, J.S. (2003). Violence assessment and intervention: The practitioner’s handbook. New York: CRC.
  • DeBecker, G. (1997). The gift of fear: And other survival signals that protect us from violence. New York: Dell.
  • Deisinger, G., Randazzo, M., O’Neill, D. & Savage, J. (2008).  The Handbook for Campus Threat Assessment & Management Teams.  Stoneham, MA: Applied Risk Management.  Available at www.arm-security.com.
  • Delaware Technical & Community College (2008). Behavioral intervention and threat assessment available athttp://www.dtcc.edu/stanton/safety/threat_assessment_policy.pdf, retrieved August 9, 2010.
  • Delworth, U. (1989). Dealing With the Behavioral and Psychological Problems of Students. New Directions for Student Services, no. 45. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Dunkle, J., Silverstein, Z. & Warner, S. (2008).  Managing violent and other troubling students: The role of threat assessment on campus. Journal of College and University Law, 34(3), 585-636.
  • Fein, R. & Vossekuil, B. (1998). Protective intelligence and threat assessment investigations: A guide for state and local law enforcement officials. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
  • Fein, R., Vossekuil, B. & Holden, G. (September, 1995). Threat assessment: An approach to prevent targeted violence. Research in Action, 1-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
  • Flannery, R.B. (1995). Violence in the workplace. New York: Crossroad.
  • Gallagher, R. (2007). National Survey of Counseling Center Directors 2007. Alexandria, VA: International Association of Counseling Services, Inc.
  • Hoffman, A.M., Schuh, J.H., & Fenske, R.H. (Eds.). (1998). Violence on campus: Defining the problems, Strategies for Action. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
  • International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA). (1993). Handling institutional violence on campus. Hartford, CT: IACLEA.
  • IACLEA (1996). Handling violence in the workplace. Hartford, CT: IACLEA.
  • IACLEA (2008).  Overview of the Virginia Tech tragedy and implications for campus safety: The IACLEA Blueprint for safer campuses. West Hartford, CT: IACLEA.
  • Jaeger, L., Deisinger, E., Houghton, D., & Cychosz, C. (1993).  A coordinated response to critical incidents.  Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
  • Jed Foundation (2008). Student mental health and the law: A resource for institutions of higher education. New York, NY: The Jed Foundation.
  • Lake, P. F. (June 2007). Higher education called to account: Colleges and the law after Virginia Tech. Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(43), B6.
  • Lazenby, R. (Ed.). (2007). April 16: Virginia Tech Remembers. New York: Plume.
  • Leavitt, M., Spellings, M., & Gonzalez, A. (2007).  Report to the President on issues raised by the Virginia Tech tragedy.  Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Department of Education, and U.S. Department of Justice.
  • Meloy, J.R. (2000). Violence risk and threat assessment. San Diego, Specialized Training Services.
  • Mohandie, K. (2000).  School violence threat management: A practical guide for educators, law enforcement, and mental health professionals. San Diego, CA: Specialized Training Services.
  • Monahan, J. (1995). The clinical prediction of violent behavior. London: J. Aronson.
  • Monahan, J., Steadman, H.J., Silver, E., & Applebaum, P.S. (2001). Rethinking risk assessment: The MacArthur study of mental disorder and violence. New York: Oxford.
  • National Association of Attorneys General (2007).  NAAG task force on school and campus safety: Report and recommendations. Washington, DC: National Association of Attorneys General.
  • Pavela, G. The Pavela Report. Available athttp://collegepubs.com/the_pavela_report.
  • Quinsey, V.L., Harris, G.T., Rice, M.E. & Cormier, C.A. (1998). Violent offenders: Appraising and managing risk. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Randazzo, M., Borum, R., Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Modzeleski, W., & Pollack, W. (2006). Threat assessment in schools: Empirical support and comparison with other approaches.  In S.R. Jimerson and M.J. Furlong (Eds.), The handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Reddy, M., Borum, R., Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Berglund, J., & Modzeleski, W., (2001). Evaluating risk for targeted violence in schools: Comparing risk assessment, threat assessment, and other approaches.Psychology in the Schools, 38, pp. 157-172.
  • Sluss, M. (2008, April 9). Governor signs Virginia Tech-inspired mental health reform bills. The Roanoke Times, http://www.roanoke.com/news/breaking/wb/157560, retrieved August 9, 2010.
  • State Journal-Register (2008, August 22). Gov. signs bill requiring emergency plans at colleges. Retrieved on August 9, 2010 fromhttp://www.sj-r.com/homepage/x633543415/Gov-signs-bill-requiring-emergency-plans-at-colleges.
  • Suicide Prevention Resource Center (2004). Promoting mental health and preventing suicide in college and university settings. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc.
  • The Jed Foundation (2008). Student mental health and the law: A resource for institutions of higher education. New York, NY: The Jed Foundation.
  • Turner, J. & Gelles, M. (2003), Threat assessment: A risk management approach. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.
  • United States Postal Service Threat Assessment Team Task Force (1997). Threat assessment team guide.  Washington, DC: U.S. Postal Service
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Legal Resources:

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